Fortescue, Sir John
- (c. 1394–1476)A loyal adherent of the house of LANCASTER, Sir John Fortescue was also chief justice of the Court of King’s Bench and the preeminent constitutional and legal theorist of medieval England.The second son of a Devonshire gentleman, Fortescue was educated at Oxford and trained in the common law at Lincoln’s Inn. 94 FITZGERALD, THOMAS, EARL OF KILDARE He became serjeant-at-law (i.e., a senior attorney who specialized in pleading cases in common law courts) in 1430, and was appointed chief justice of King’s Bench in 1442. Fortescue fought for HENRY VI at the Battle of TOWTON in March 1461, and afterward fled into SCOTLAND with the Lancastrian royal family. Over the next two years of Scottish exile, Fortescue wrote several treatises defending the Lancastrian title to the throne and refuting the claim of the house of YORK. The best known of these works, De Natura Legis Naturae (On the Nature of Law), dismisses the Yorkist claim because of its descent through the female line. In 1463, Fortescue followed Queen MARGARET OF ANJOU and her son Prince EDWARD OF LANCASTER to FRANCE. At the queen’s court in exile at St. Michel-enBarrois, Fortescue tutored the prince and probably also acted as the Lancastrian chancellor. Exile gave Fortescue time to write his De Laudibus Legum Angliae (In Praise of the Laws of England), which may have been intended, in part, to familiarize the prince with his future kingdom. De Laudibus compares English and French law by way of explaining that England, unlike France, was a mixed monarchy in which the Crown (i.e., the king in PARLIAMENT) governed with the consent of the people.In 1470, Fortescue supported the ANGERS AGREEMENT, the alliance that Queen Margaret concluded with Richard NEVILLE, earl of Warwick. After the Lancastrian restoration, while waiting to return to England, Fortescue drafted a series of proposals to advise Henry VI’s READEPTION government on how to avoid the errors that had caused Henry’s earlier downfall. Fortescue landed in England with Margaret and the prince on 14 April 1471, the day of Warwick’s death at the Battle of BARNET. Captured in May after the Battle of TEWKESBURY, Fortescue acknowledged Lancastrian defeat and submitted to EDWARD IV, who pardoned him and restored his estates on condition that he refute his own earlier arguments in favor of the Lancastrian claim. Achieving this in his Declaration upon Certain Writings Sent Out of Scotland, Fortescue successfully petitioned for reversal of his ATTAINDER. Fortescue’s last work, On the Governance of the Kingdom of England, summarized portions of De Laudibus and was the first work of constitutional theory in English and the first book of English law written specifically for laypersons. Appointed to the COUNCIL in the 1470s, Fortescue served until his death in 1476.Further Reading: Fortescue, Sir John, De Laudibus Legum Angliae, edited and translated by S. B. Chrimes (Holmes Beach, FL:William W. Gaunt and Sons, 1986); Fortescue, Sir John, Sir John Fortescue: On the Laws and Governance of England, edited by Shelley Lockwood (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997); Gross, Anthony, The Dissolution of the Lancastrian Kingship: Sir John Fortescue and the Crisis of Monarchy in Fifteenth-Century England (Stamford, UK: Paul Watkins, 1996).
Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses. John A.Wagner. 2001.
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Fortescue, Sir John — (ca. 1395–ca. 1477) Sir John Fortescue was a constitutional lawyer who wrote in both Latin and English. Because of his forthright writing style, his works were significant in the development of English prose. He was immersed in politics and… … Encyclopedia of medieval literature
Fortescue, Sir John — born с 1385, Norris, Somerset, Eng. died с 1479, Ebrington, Gloucestershire English jurist. He served as chief justice of the King s Bench from 1442. He was the first to state the basic principle that it is better that the guilty escape than that … Universalium
Fortescue, Sir John — ( 1385, Norris, Somerset, Inglaterra– 1479, Ebrington, Gloucestershire). Jurista inglés. A partir de 1442 fue presidente del Tribunal supremo. Fue el primero en formular el principio básico de que es preferible que el culpable escape a que el… … Enciclopedia Universal
FORTESCUE, SIR JOHN — an eminent English lawyer, born in Somersetshire; flourished in the 15th century; was called to the bar at Lincoln s Inn, and in 1442 became Lord Chief Justice of the Court of King s Bench; he was a staunch Lancastrian during the Wars of the… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Fortescue, Sir John — (1394? 1476?) Political writer, was descended from a Devonshire family. He was an eminent lawyer, and held the office of Lord Chief Justice of the King s Bench (1442). During the Wars of the Roses he was a staunch Lancastrian. On the triumph… … Short biographical dictionary of English literature
Sir John Beaumont, 1st Baronet — (1583 ndash; April 19, 1627), was an English poet.He was born at Grace Dieu in Leicestershire, the second son of the judge, Sir Francis Beaumont.The deaths of his father (in 1598) and of his elder brother, Sir Henry Beaumont (in 1605), made the… … Wikipedia
John Fortescue of Salden — Sir John Fortescue of Salden (c. 1531 or 1533 – 23 December 1607) was the third Chancellor of the Exchequer of England, serving from 1589 until 1603.He was the son of Adrian Fortescue and his wife Anne. Fortescue had six children with his first… … Wikipedia
John Fortescue — Sir John Fortescue (* 1394 in Norris, Devonshire; † 1476 in Gloucestershire) war ein englischer politischer Schriftsteller in der Renaissance. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
John Fortescue — Sir John Fortescue (vers 1394 vers 1476), jurisconsulte anglais. Il était en 1442 grand juge du banc du roi. Il jouit de la faveur de Henri VI d Angleterre, qui le nomma chancelier, mais il perdit tout crédit à l avènement d Edouard IV d… … Wikipédia en Français
john — /jon/, n. Slang. 1. a toilet or bathroom. 2. (sometimes cap.) a fellow; guy. 3. (sometimes cap.) a prostitute s customer. [generic use of the proper name] * * * I known as John Lackland born Dec. 24, 1167, Oxford, Eng. died Oct. 18/19, 1216,… … Universalium